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Dispatch from New York: Thinking about development after 2015

Posted by Timothy Ledwith Wednesday, January 30, 2013 0 comments

A display at the June 2012 Rio+20 conference refers to the
global conversation on post-2015 development. ©IFAD
By Zak Bleicher

The “post-2015 development agenda” has become a hot topic in development circles in New York. This agenda refers to a potential framework to replace the Millennium Development Goals upon their expiration in 2015, as well as the articulation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) envisioned at the Rio+20 conference last year.

In terms of agenda-setting, 2013 is going to be a critical year. At this stage, it is reasonable to expect that the post-2015 agenda will have a far wider scope than the current MDGs, potentially incorporating peace, security and good governance, along with strengthened environmental and human rights dimensions. Through this expanded orientation – and the deeper legitimacy gained from a process of extensive consultations – the new framework will carry significant implications for the flow of resources and the alignment of international institutions and other actors in the development arena.

Nearly the entire UN system, mobilized by the Secretary-General, is contributing to the post-2015 dialogue. Other major institutions, including the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, are working on the topic as well. Civil society, the private sector and academic organizations are heavily engaged too.

All of these voices have combined to create a veritable cacophony of ideas and debates trying to answer some core questions:
  • What has and has not worked with the MDGs?
  • What issues need to be included in the post-2015 development framework, especially accounting for those that are under-represented in the MDGs? (Take a look at some interesting ideas on Post2015.org, a hub for dialogue about what comes after the MDGs.)
  • How can a new framework help to drive implementation, supported by partnership, accountability and finance? 
A global conversation
The MDG experience showed that it can take quite some time to raise awareness, get buy-in and build support and alignment for development objectives. This time around, there is a commitment by UN Member States and the Secretary-General to take advantage of the significant lead time by conducting a global conversation about post-2015 development.

The process has evolved into a massive undertaking involving multi-stakeholder consultations at all levels – most of which will feed into a report the Secretary-General will deliver to Member States this September, containing his initial proposal. The report will be discussed at a High-level Meeting to coincide with the opening of the 68th General Assembly session. That meeting will be an important milestone and stage-setter on the path to agreeing on a new framework, likely sometime in 2015 itself.

The core of the current process includes the following elements:
  • The Secretary-General has formed a High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on Post-2015. This group, co-chaired by the Heads of Government of Indonesia, Liberia and the United Kingdom, has stated that its members plan “to focus on the elimination of poverty in all its forms and to put in place the building blocks for prosperity for all.” Their report should be released around the end of May. 
  • Within the context of the United Nations Development Group, various UN entities – including IFAD – are conducting a series of 11 global thematic consultations; supporting 66 national level consultations with ambitions to push that number to 100; and supporting regional consultations in cooperation with the UN’s regional commissions. Each of these outputs will inform both the High-level Panel and the Secretary-General’s report.
  • The UN Global Compact is conducting consultations within its network, and Jeffrey Sachs, the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser on the MDGs, has launched the Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
  • Civil society organizations are able to provide input into each of these channels and are undertaking their own processes of consultation. (Vote on your own post-2015 priorities by completing a global citizens’ survey.) 
Perhaps most important, Member States have followed up on the mandate they gave themselves at Rio +20 by forming an Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals. As agreed at Rio, these goals should be “universal” in their orientation. For now, this process is on a separate track and will not deliver its recommendations until sometime in 2014. The UN system will support the Open Working Group through a UN Task Team, an inter-agency technical exercise in which IFAD is participating. It’s worth looking at the Task Team’s report from last year.

Far-reaching impact
There is so much involved (and it seems to keep growing) that it’s tempting to call all of this the “post-2015 industrial complex.” However, the fact remains that the results of this discussion could have massive implications for the work of all actors in the international development sphere. The outcome, should it ultimately be endorsed by Member States, would likely represent a new, far-reaching compact on global development priorities and resources. It could also have an impact on the architecture of international development, which some may seek to align with implementation of the post-2015 framework.

No matter the precise nature of the outcome, it is sure to affect IFAD’s work. At the same time, IFAD can be an impactful voice in this conversation on behalf of its mission and core constituents. And IFAD will seek to ensure that the voices of rural people, especially smallholder farmers and, in particular, rural women and indigenous peoples, are heard and accounted for in whatever outcome is agreed.

As noted above, IFAD is already engaged in this effort. In fact, an IFAD-wide group has been established to bring together the expertise that exists in various parts of the organization for an internal discussion. Together with colleagues in the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Programme, we are identifying areas where the agencies can add value to the debate by speaking in a common voice. IFAD will also participate in an FAO/WFP-convened meeting of the UN Committee on Food Security in the context of the thematic consultation on hunger and food and nutrition security.

You, too, can contribute to the conversation in various ways. Just take a look at the actions listed on TheWorldWeWant2015.org, an online platform for post-2015 awareness and action, to see where you can plug in.

Zak Bleicher is the Partnership Officer at IFAD’s Liaison Office in New York.

A girl helps her family harvest sugarcane in Sindh
province, Pakistan. ©IFAD/Asad Zaidi

By Jonathan Agwe

The Dubai Global Islamic Microfinance Forum, held in December 2012, brought together professionals, leaders and experts working in Islamic microfinance institutions, international donor organizations and development agencies from around the world. Together, they engaged in dialogue on sustainable development and poverty alleviation achieved through Islamic microfinance.

The forum was the second international conference on this topic organized by the Al Huda Centre for Islamic Banking and Economics (CIBE) through its Centre of Excellence in Islamic Microfinance (CEIMF). The fundamental objective was to demonstrate that – in parallel with conventional microfinance – Islamic microfinance can provide support to the “unbankable” members of society.

Participants in the Dubai forum reiterated that this instrument builds on ethical, moral and social factors to promote mutual support, equality and fairness for the benefit of the society and its members.

Potential to target diverse markets
According to Islam, there are three classes of Faqeir or vulnerable groups in society: (i) those who cannot earn a living, (ii) those who are financially distressed and (iii) those who capable of earning a living but lack adequate opportunities.

Family-run shop in a rural village in Egypt.
© IFAD/Marco Salustro
The forum showed how these groups are differentiated. The first two classes may be served by a social security system and charity based on Islamic ways, under which alms-giving is a personal religious duty. The third category qualifies for support through Islamic microfinance. People in the third group can be helped to become creditworthy and bankable through interest-free loans that comply with Islamic law – the Sharia – rather than through charity. Islamic microfinance refrains from practices that are not compliant with Sharia, such as providing or receiving any fixed, pre-determined rate of return on financial transactions.

The forum also underscored the concept that, for Sharia-based Islamic microfinance to reach out to the approximated 44 per cent of global microfinance clients residing in Muslim countries, the instrument has to be considered not as a niche but a service with the potential and ability to target diverse markets.

"Islamic microfinance: Unlocking new potential to fight rural poverty" – a publication released by IFAD in December, the same month as the Dubai forum – confirmed that in recent years, Islamic microfinance has reached a rapidly growing market. The publication reiterated that Islamic microfinance offers millions of disadvantaged people, in Muslim countries and beyond, access to financial services that are premised on providing for the welfare of the population.

Promising innovations
IFAD’s Near East, North Africa and Europe Division has successfully launched a series of initiatives piloting the use of promising innovations and products in Islamic microfinance. To reach out to more clients in Muslim countries and beyond, IFAD is exploring ways to collaborate with like-minded institutions – for example, Al Huda CIBE/CEIMF – and develop joint initiatives promoting the principles of Sharia-compliant Islamic microfinance.

For more information, visit the Dubai Global Islamic Microfinance Forum section on the Al Huda website.

Jonathan Agwe is an IFAD Technical Adviser on Rural Finance in the Policy and Technical Advisory Division, Programme Management Department. He serves as IFAD’s focal point on Islamic finance. E-mail j.agwe@ifad.org; tel: +39 0654592848. 

For the Love of Land

Posted by daniela cuneo 0 comments

by Shreya Thapa

Sitting outside her home, Radhika Dhakal surveys the stretch of land directly below her. Verdant plumes emerge from the earth and the soil extending from the house to the main road is a patchwork of brown and green.

©IFAD/Rocky Prajapati
 “When we started, I didn’t think any of this would be possible,” she says in a soft, almost distant, voice.
At 42, Radhika and her husband have their own house, and more importantly, their own land in the mountain village of Gurase in the mid-western district of Dailekh. On the six ropani (about a third of a hectare) that is registered in her name, the couple farm vegetables such as cauliflower, potato, cabbage and radish, enabling them to make between Rs 100,000 and Rs150,000 in a year. They recently bought a cow, and a few months ago, Radhika opened a small roadside stall.

“We’ve come a long way,” she says with a satisfied smile.

Less than a decade ago, the couple and their five children lived under very different circumstances.

“Back then, we used to chop wood and sell it,” Radhika explains about the labor-intensive jobs with minimal pay she and her family endured in the past. “We had to work for other people, sometimes carrying supplies from Surkhet to Dailekh (approximately 24 km), which would take all day. It was very difficult. We had no income and because of that, it was nearly impossible to get a loan from anywhere. If we somehow got a loan, the interest rate would be impossibly high.”

©IFAD/Rocky Prajapati

So Radhika – along with 12 other women in Gurase – took matters into her own hands by establishing the Ama Shristhi Savings and Credit Cooperative. The cooperative is a part of the Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Across 11 districts in western Nepal, the project works with the Government of Nepal to promote resilient livelihoods and offers dignity to poor and socially disadvantaged groups, especially women, Dalits, Janjatis, and as Radhika once was – the landless.

“The cooperative didn’t have a lot of money at first. Each woman contributed Rs 20 per month,” Radhika says. “When we had a small collection, the cooperative was ready to make the first loan.”

The system is simple: When a sizeable fund is collected, each member is at liberty to petition for a loan. Depending on the circumstances of the women, a decision is made, often based on whose need is the most urgent. Beyond loans, the coop also guides members on agricultural matters from tools to farming tips and trainings to optimizing production.

“They were considering giving the money to another lady and I knew if I didn’t get it then, I would have to wait longer for the next opportunity.” Some of the cooperative members were hesitant to give Radhika the first loan, seeing as she had no means of earning. But she convinced them she would pay it back within two months.

The sum she had sought was a modest Rs 2,600 but it was enough to make significant changes in her life.

“At that time, I didn’t even have a house. We lived in a hut made from sticks. But with my first loan, I was able to make a house for my family.”

While the house still stands strong today, the first loan laid a foundation for a better future. “After paying back my loan in full, I was able to earn the trust of the cooperative,” she says, and in doing so, she was able to take out more loans.

©IFAD/Rocky Prajapati

Eight years ago, Radhika used a loan to clear the land that was part of her inheritance, “When I got the land, it was useless –mostly jungle –and you couldn’t farm on it. We didn’t even know if we could farm it and make a living out of it but we really wanted to change our lives. We know what hunger is, we suffered so much, and seeing how others were doing it, I wanted to farm, too.” 

And she did. With the vegetables she plants and sells, Radhika is able to rely on consistent income every season. “This earning makes a huge difference. My husband has always been sickly and was never able to work or earn properly,” she explains how the vegetables dramatically changed her family’s situation.

By having a reliable means of earning, Radhika and her family have a burden lifted from their backs—they no longer need to leave the house at 4 am only to return at 8 pm after carrying dokos of vegetables and rice between Surkhet and Dailekh. On top of having the workload eased, Radhika has earned stability for her family by being able to educate all of her children, a remarkable feat especially considering she never went to school and only recently learnt to write her name from a fellow coop member.

“Having our own land made this all possible… from there we were able to move up,” she says.

With a combination of her earnings and more loans, Radhika has been able to acquire a cow. Her excitement of being able to make such a purchase is almost tangible, her voice grows louder as she points to where the cow is tethered. And the same sense of fulfillment is evident when she mentions the new roadside stall she recently opened.

©IFAD/Rocky Prajapati

“We’ve come a long way, but I believe we can do more, and I want to do more,” she exclaims.
The positive impact the cooperative has had on her life and other members is undeniable, but the women aren’t looking to limit themselves. “Until now we’ve only done farming, but I would like to learn tailoring to make clothes,” Radhika says, adding, “I wouldn’t mind learning how to knit or make stools, as we don’t have any of these trades in Gurase.”

Already quite busy, Radhika isn’t daunted by how more responsibilities would come with new ventures. She and the other women from the cooperative are eager to work together and share the workload. By learning different trades Radhika is looking out for the next generation, too. “If we can do this, then after we learn we can teach our children too,” she adds.

Less than 10 years ago, Radhika didn’t know where her next meal would come from. Now, through the income she makes from farming, she’s in a place to look ahead. “Now after having accomplished all this, we want to do more, we can think more long-term and plan for the future,” she says.

Originally published in República newspaper

Principles and practice for resilience, food security & nutrition

Posted by Roxanna Samii Saturday, January 26, 2013 0 comments

by Ertharin Cousin (Executive Director, World Food Programme), Jose Graziano da Silva (Director General, Food and Agriculture Organization , Kanayo F. Nwanze (President, International Fund for Agricultural Development) 

The IFAD-supported Sahelian Areas Development
Fund Programme (FODESA), is a large-scale
natural resource management initiative,
designed to help local populations restore damaged
ecosystems and build resilience to a harsher climate.

We are at a tipping point in the fight against hunger and malnutrition. The world is becoming a less predictable and more threatening place for the poorest and most vulnerable.
As we grow more interconnected, a range of complex risks, including climate change, environmental degradation, population growth, conflict,and food and fuel price volatility, are exacerbating the challenges faced by vulnerable communities. Unless we protect the world’s poorest people and empower them to adapt to change and build robust, adaptable and more prosperous livelihoods, we face a future where every shock becomes an opportunity for hunger and poverty to thrive.

All of us engaged in the fight against hunger – governments, international organizations, non-governmental and community-based organizations, private businesses and foundations – recognize the need to shift the way we work with food insecure communities to help them become more resilient.

The Rome-based United Nations agencies are championing this shift by aligning our policies and programmes with six core principles.

PRINCIPLE 1: People, communities and governments must lead resilience-building for improved food security and nutrition
Resilience-building strengthens the capacities of vulnerable households and communities to adapt to changing circumstances, manage an increasingly complex risk environment, and cope with shocks they are unable to prevent.

Efforts to assist vulnerable groups to manage risks and build their resilience must be developed through country- and community-led efforts. Government leadership brings a more holistic approach that transcends any institutional barriers partners might have to working together. Capacity-building of local authorities and better engagement of community leaders increases the likelihood that activities will be relevant to local needs and deliver sustained gains. All efforts must focus on people, their organizations, and build on their current risk management and coping strategies.

PRINCIPLE 2: Building resilience is beyond the capacity of any single institution
Building resilience must be a joint effort. No single activity on its own is likely to build resilience, yet together and if taken to relevant scale, each can contribute to improved resilience overall.
In Kenya, during the 2011 crisis, communities enrolled in programmes to build assets and reduce disaster risks were able to harvest crops,while their neighbors required emergency relief assistance. FAO, IFAD and WFP, in partnership with the Government of Kenya, are working together to replicate this successful experience on a larger scale, turning post-disaster recovery into an opportunity for building resilience.

Through the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative, Oxfam America, Swiss Re and WFP, with support from The Rockefeller Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development, are scaling up a resilience-building approach that brings together safety nets, disaster risk reduction and micro-insurance. R4 enables cash-poor farmers to work on community-identified projects in exchange for drought insurance, reducing the potential negative impact of future disasters. Insurance also allows farmers better access to credit for livelihood investments. In Ethiopia, R4reached a major milestone in 2012 when nearly 12,000 drought-affected households received an insurance payout of over US$320,000, or US$26each. This insurance payout helped households absorb the shock, repay loans, and invest in agricultural inputs for the next season.

PRINCIPLE 3: Planning frameworks should combine immediate relief requirements with long-term development objectives
Better risk management and strengthened resilience are as central to the development agenda as they are to humanitarian action. 

Building resilience means addressing the immediate causes of vulnerability,food insecurity and malnutrition, while building the capacity of people and their governments to better manage underlying risks to their lives and livelihoods. We can no longer divide development from humanitarian action.

Better risk management and strengthened resilience are as central to the development agenda as they are to humanitarian action. They are a prerequisite for enabling vulnerable people to cultivate a new crop, start anew enterprise, or take any new action to overcome hunger and poverty. IFAD’s 2011 Rural Poverty Report affirms that “because the risks that poor rural people face today are changing and arguably increasing, improved risk management needs to become a central, cross-cutting element within the development agenda.”

PRINCIPLE 4: Ensuring protection of the most vulnerable is crucial for sustaining development efforts
Productive safety nets are a cost-effective way to achieve longer-term solutions to hunger and increased flexibility to manage risks.Only 20 percent of people in the world today have access to social protection. The poorest, most vulnerable and food insecure among us typically have no access to social protection or safety nets. For this reason, when disaster strikes it has a more dramatic effect on the lives and livelihoods of poor people.

But experience in Ethiopia offers a welcome glimpse into a more hopeful future. Although Ethiopia faced a severe drought in 2011, the impact on the most food-insecure people was less severe than in similarly affect neighboring countries. The Government of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), Early Warning System, bi-annual Food Security Assessment and associated Humanitarian Requirements Document(HRD) contributed to a more timely and effective response to people affected by drought. In 2011, the HRD provided relief assistance to more than 4.5 million people while the PSNP provided food and cash support to over 7 million people.

PRINCIPLE 5: Effective risk management requires integration of enhanced monitoring and analysis into decision making
Better monitoring and early warning will provide decision makers at all levels with the information they need to manage risks, adjust plans, and seize opportunities.Our approach begins with the vulnerable communities and continues through local, national and regional levels, helping ensure that action at every level is mutually reinforcing. This allows for better responses to shocks, but it also saves a lot of money. The World Bank estimates early warning systems save between 14 and 70 U.S. dollars per dollar invested.
PRINCIPLE 6: Interventions must be evidence-based and focus on long-term results
Building resilience is complex and dynamic. It requires a concentration of resources to address fundamental challenges faced by vulnerable populations. To ensure the most effective use of resources, we most rigorously evaluate the resilience-building impacts of medium- and long-term interventions on household food security and nutrition.

Our choice of a world without hunger and poverty requires us to help vulnerable people build resilience against complex risks.

The 2011 famine in Somalia starkly illustrated how shocks overwhelm the resiliency of the poorest or most marginalized, leading to destitution,displacement, hunger, illness, death and the breakdown of families and communities. This highlighted the inadequacy of efforts in the years prior to the crisis to build people’s resilience to future and recurrent shocks.

Our choice of a world without hunger and poverty requires us to help vulnerable people build resilience against complex risks. We need to support their livelihood, risk management and coping strategies. We must encourage and support the leadership of the governments and people we assist so they can build their own resilience. We must work together more effectively.

To do this, we must improve our policy and planning frameworks to combine our short-term humanitarian work with longer-term development objectives. We must change the way we grow, share and consume nutritious food. We must make concerted efforts to assist the most marginalized people through safety nets and other investments. We must bolster risk management services, including insurance for poor and vulnerable populations, to encourage investment and development of their livelihoods. And we must act on a more robust evidence base to ensure we use the limited resources that we have in the most efficient way possible.

If we do these things, we will help build a future where periodic shocks no longer plunge people into hunger and poverty, and communities thrive where the threats of hunger and poverty once ruled.

The Rockefeller Foundation, in their new publication, titled Rebound: Building a More Resilient World, asked leaders from various disciplines to share their lessons of what resilience means and what it requires of us. World Food Programme Executive Director Ertharin Cousin, Director-General of the Food And Agriculture Organization José Graziano da Silva, and International Fund for Agricultural Development President Kanayo F. Nwanze lay out six guiding principles for those fighting to end global hunger. 

The importance of being less HQ-centric

Posted by Claudio Lanzi Monday, January 21, 2013 0 comments

#IMI Country Office Immersion for Innovation– Guatemala, 1-8 December 2012

This visit has been a valuable chance to examine the current administrative procedures and see what opportunities are available for innovation that could be repeated at other offices. Some difficulties that ICO colleagues face with procedures are due to the fact that existing IFAD administrative procedures have been created and designed to be carried out in IFAD HQ. During my mission I discussed with the ICO colleagues the new Travel Procedures that will be set up shortly, and made a list of procedures for which they have problems, or that are too costly. In this view the revision of the existing travel procedures was a good example of mutual benefit for both IFAD HQ and ICOs: a less HQ-centric approach in setting-up new procedures and redefining existing procedures will help, also in terms of time and budget savings. This kind of approach was also shared by our ICO colleagues that were enthusiastic of the idea.

The mission was also very exciting, as Guatemala city is a city surrounded by four active volcanoes that give rise to breath-taking sunsets!

Also the country-side is of a deep green that leaves you speechless, such as the “Cooperativa  Mujeres 4 Pinos” which is an impressive example of women cooperative.

Started about 30 years ago, 70 women produce vegetables, collaborate with producers to identify production schemes and contract those who can meet quality and quantity targets, also fixing product prices.

Also thanks to IFAD funding, Cooperativa Mujeres Cuatro Pinos is now an industry that produce, package and sells its products. Recently they started exporting their products to the United States and have achieved an annual growth rate of 50 per cent in vegetable exports over the past 4 years.

Colleagues of ICOs were so nice that I would stay in Guatemala much more!  Hospitality is something that doesn’t make a small difference when you’re in a foreign country…

I recommend this experience to everyone, especially to my colleagues who wish to touch with their hands the sense of our work in IFAD. IMI initiative was a great opportunity for me and I think it showed how important can be the GS contribution to make IFAD and ICO collaboration easier and effective.

Definitely a very formative experience for me, that I am confident will be useful to IFAD too.

Back from our IMI experience

Posted by daniela cuneo Tuesday, January 8, 2013 0 comments

Written by Semina Fazelbhoy and Claudio Priori

China country office (20-27 October 2012)
by Semina

Before leaving for Beijing I was apprehensive to travel alone to China-so many worries: the long flight, the arrival late evening, the language (despite the efforts I could learn only few words in Chinese before leaving) and of course worry of not answering all HR-related queries.

All my worries were futile-because although the flight was long (Emirates) and in spite of travelling economy class, I had lots of leg-room, the food was delicious and the people sitting next to me were friendly. Upon arrival at Beijing airport I was received by a very nice Chinese UNDP driver-we of course communicated in sign language!  The hotel staff were friendly and I learned lots of new words,  " 你好" Nihao (hello) was my first one.

I had healthy discussions with the ICO staff and we covered several  HR topics.  In the same office compound, I met staff of WFP, UNDP and UNDSS all of whom were readily available to cover topics ranging from recruitment to security.

The ICO staff were thrilled to receive the  country office administrative handbook and the communications toolkit.  They were enthralled to learn the usage of LMS and most of all they felt honoured that someone from HQ-HR was present in person to answer their numerous queries.  They constantly mentioned that they now feel more included as IFAD staff and less isolated!

Beijing is a beautiful, safe, city, with wide streets and fashionable shops.  The food is light and cheap and the portions huge.  Yes, language can be a challenge, but you can get by if you learn a few key words in Chinese and speak to the young  people who are only too eager to practise their English.

I was fortunate to have the opportunity to visit China and would love to return to China someday to learn more about their language and culture.

Ghana country office (26-30 November 2012)
by Claudio

Accra: Local market
Since the establishment of IFAD country offices, I have not had the opportunity to visit on site and to better understand the way our ICOs operate. As many of my colleagues working in ADM, we often work with our ICOs colleagues but being at HQ it is not always easy to capture how we can do things differently in order to improve our collaboration to make things work better.  That’s why I applied for the IMI initiative and I am glad my proposal was selected!  Thanks to IMI, I finally had the chance to visit our Ghana country office and  the African Continent for the first time in my life.  It was a very enriching experience both professionally and personally.

Claudio and Sarah  working together!
Working closely with IFAD local colleagues as well as having contact with the Ghanaian residents was one of the memorable experiences that I will always remember with pleasure. The hospitality of our colleagues in Ghana was impeccable in making me feel at home.  When back in Rome, I felt a bit sad and suddenly I could understand what my colleagues meant by “MAL D’ AFRICA”

In the office with our colleagues Ulac, Sarah and Daniel
 I cannot but over emphasize the importance for each staff member at IFAD to have the chance to visit a county in which IFAD operates and meet the colleagues who work there. These kind of opportunities put things in a different perspective and it's easier to work out  a new way of doing things! In my specific case,  I received many constructive suggestions on how to improve the  inventory management for assets assigned to our ICOs.

We are now working on these suggestions .......new ideas will shortly be discussed with Management.

Keep reading the blogs to know more!!

I am fervently looking forward to my next duty travel….